Thanks to its high technology and low prices, drones have become accessible to everyone. The market estimates are based on a growth rate of more than 100% per year. In the USA alone, the number of drones sold was estimated at 1.1 million in 2015 and 2.4 million units in 2016. This growth will continue in the coming years.
Although the drones can be both small planes and small helicopters, the most common model is a multicopter with 4 rotor blades, electrically powered, with GPS navigation and equipped with a camera with direct connection to the person operating the drone. The average weight is 2.5 kg with autonomy of approximately 20 minutes. The effective maximum distance to the controller of an unmodified drone is approximately 1,000 metres. The speed can be up to 60 km/hour, while a payload of about 450 grams.
For control, a broad spectrum radio connection is used on the so-called ISM bands 2.4 GHz and 5.8 GHz.
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Until now, a good perimeter protection was sufficient to protect critical infrastructure. Now it is also necessary to place an entire dome over the infrastructure to counter threats from drones.
Drones can pose the following threats:
- Privacy / Espionage threat
- Terror / Crime Threat
- Cyber threat
The ease with which a drone can get above critical infrastructure poses a serious threat. Common alarm detection systems such as intrusion alarm systems are not suitable for detecting drones.
The anti-drone system consists of two parts:
- The detection measures
- The countermeasures
The detection technology can easily be integrated into existing alarm and control room systems. The technique consists of a sensor layer, the validation software and the user interface on a computer screen.
It consists of outdoor sensors placed on top of the building that capture the radio signals, listen to acoustic signals and capture images with a camera.
This is the heart of the system where sensor information is validated and correlated. The forensic information is also stored here for investigative purposes. The unique ID, type and MAC-address of the drone are stored and compared with previous detections.
This web browser-based user interface can be used on a separate or an existing control room monitor. It is user-friendly and requires little training to operate. The countermeasures to be taken depend on the nature of the threat and the circumstances. Does the drone have an unknown payload/explosive or just a camera? Where is the drone located?
The Bavak team has been working on drone detection for several years now as a complement to other detection tools. As a system integrator, we use Dedrone’s proven technology.
This system is developed in Germany and supplied and maintained by Bavak.
Drone detection systems can be permanently installed and integrated with existing control room systems. For events and temporary deployment it is possible to use a fast deployable event drone detection unit. These units are used at (government) events such as an EU summit in Brussels, where the unit has been extensively tested and used effectively, with positive results.